Tutorials

Tutorials : Sunday, July 9th 2017, 8:30 – 18:00

Making the choice of believing in science

Neil deGrasse Tyson (American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA)

Confirmed speakers

Songbin Gong (University of Illinois), Lithium Niobate for MEMS/NEMS
Giacomo Langfelder (Politecnico di Milano), MEMS inertial sensors in 2017, with possible future visions
Siddharth Tallur (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay), The versatile toolbox of cavity opto-mechanics
Eric Burt (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena), Microwave atomic clocks
Enrico Rubiola (FEMTO ST Besançon), Phase noise and jitter in digital electronics
Gesine Grosche (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt), Frequency and time transfer using optical fibers
Cristian Cassella (Northeastern University Boston), Alternative nonlinear phase noise suppression techniques
Patrizia Tavella (Italian Metrology Institute Torino), Precise time scale and navigation systems
Yann Le Coq (Système de Référence Temps-Espace Paris), Femtosecond combs
Craig Nelson (National Institute of Standards and Technology Boulder), Phase Noise Metrology
Philip Feng (Case Western Reserve University), Atomic-Layer Semiconductors for Emerging 2D Devices and Nanosystems
Ekkehard Peik (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt), Optical clocks
John Kitching (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder), Atomic sensors and applications
Aaron Partridge (SiTime), MEMS oscillators
David Leidbrandt (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder), Lasers for atomic frequency standards

Time

Track A (Timekeeping and Noise)

Track B (Atomic clocks and optical combs)

Track C (MEMS/NEMS)

8:30 – 10:00
Tutorial 1A – Patrizia Tavella (Precise time scale and navigation systems)

Abstract

Today, atomic clocks enable precision estimates of time and position. Through the use of ultra precise atomic frequency standards, we can form time scales, such as the international time standard Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), capable of dating events with nanosecond accuracy. Similarly, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), provide location all over the world with sub-meter accuracy. In timekeeping, as well as in navigation systems, the questions may be similar, but the answers are frequently dissimilar, due to different goals, requirements, technology availability and constraints. In both cases precision clocks, measuring systems, and a reference time scale are required; in both cases we need to estimate how often the clocks are to be resynchronized and what is the acceptable time error that a clock may accumulate without compromising system performance. We require a mathematical model to predict clock behavior in order to maintain agreement with another reference clock or to ensure updated navigation messages. We need to understand the “normal” behavior of a clock to be able to quickly identify anomalies which can lead to incorrect estimates. The lecture presents the needs of precise Timing and Navigation, explaining the current international timekeeping architectures and the timing systems of the current GNSS, giving insight to the most demanding topics that still challenge Time Metrology.

Bio

Degree in Physics and Ph.D. in Metrology, she is now senior scientist with the Italian Metrology Institute, INRIM, Torino, Italy. Her main interests are mathematical and statistical models mostly applied to atomic  time scale algorithms. She is currently involved in the development of the European Navigation System Galileo.
Tutorial 1B – Eric Burt (Microwave atomic clocks)

Abstract

Microwave atomic clocks are everywhere in society.  They range from chip-scale models that can fit into hand-held electronics, to “hardened” units that are flown in space, to laboratory units that reach state of the art levels of precision and accuracy.  The term “microwave” corresponds to the wavelength of the radiation used to stimulate the internal atomic transition that forms the basis of the clock.  Atomic clock technology grew out of experiments in the 1930’s to investigate and characterize internal atomic structure.  It was quickly realized that energy levels of certain internal atomic states, and so the frequency of electromagnetic radiation used to make transitions between them, are exquisitely stable and immune to external perturbations and so might be used as a reference for a frequency standard.  The first atomic clocks were based on techniques used in these scientific investigations.  Due to the intervening 80+ years of development, microwave atomic clocks enjoy a high degree of sophistication and technical maturity that enables their wide range of applications.In the first part of this tutorial I will give an overview of how atomic clocks work in general and then describe in detail the underlying physics.  Crucial to building atomic clocks is being able to measure their performance, so I will also describe the various metrics used.  In the second part of the tutorial, I will give several key examples that represent the range of microwave atomic clock applications.  These will include, small chip-scale clocks, engineered space clocks, ultra-stable trapped ion clocks, and accurate laser-cooled fountain clocks.  By the end of the tutorial, attendees should be able to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the various clock technologies and to understand talks given at the conference on this topic.

Bio

Eric Burt received a B.S. degree with honors in mathematics from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1979, a M.S. degree in physics from the University of Washington, Seattle, Washington in 1990 and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Washington in 1995.  His Ph.D. thesis, supervised by Prof. Warren Nagourney, was in the field of experimental atomic physics on the trapping and laser-cooling of single indium ions.   From 1995 to 1997 he was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Colorado, in Boulder, Colorado working with Carl Wieman and Eric Cornell on experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates including the first experiment to demonstrate a dual-species condensate and the first experiment to demonstrate higher-order (laser-like) coherence in condensate atoms.  From 1997 to 2001 he worked at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. developing a laser-cooled cesium fountain atomic clock.  From 2001 to the present he has worked at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology most recently as a Principal Member of Technical Staff.  His work at JPL has included development of both ion and laser-cooled neutral atomic clocks and using atomic clocks to place limits on fundamental constant variation.  Dr. Burt is a member of the American Physical Society, and the IEEE.  He is on the technical program committee for the IEEE Frequency Control Symposium and has served as the chair of that committee as well as vice-chair for group 3 (microwave atomic clocks).  He has also served on the steering committee for the APS Topical Group on Precision Measurement and Fundamental Constants.
Tutorial 1C – Aaron Partridge (MEMS Oscillators)

Abstract

Bio

10:00 – 10:15
Coffea Break
10:15 – 11:45
Tutorial 2A – Cristian Cassella (Nonlinear techniques for phase noise reduction in micro and nano oscillators)

Abstract

The development of the internet of things (IoT 1) and the demand of higher data-rates in commercial telecommunication systems are intensifying the need of alternative approaches to effectively reduce the impact of noise on the performance of miniaturized sensors and radios. The growing need of miniaturized and fully integrated microwave circuits is pushing designers to consider the use of micro and nano resonators in integrated oscillator circuits aiming radio-frequency and sensing applications. Phase noise represents the most relevant limiting factor for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the output of such oscillators. Micro- and nano electromechanical (M/NEM) resonators have been lately proposed to achieve low noise and low power frequency generation in integrated wireless platforms. However, oscillators based such resonant devices still suffer from higher phase noise than those based on larger volume Quartz resonators. So, in the attempt of improving their phase noise a large effort was made in the past to improve the stability of M/NEM oscillators by increasing the quality factor of the resonant devices, by using phase-locked loops (PLLs), injection-locking oscillators, phase-synchronization of weakly coupled oscillators and mode coupling and frequency locking to a high-quality resonator. Only recently the use of nonlinearities has been proposed to achieve better phase noise levels in M/NEM oscillators than those attained in conventional oscillator architectures. In this talk, recent examples of nonlinear circuit architectures for phase noise evasion will be showcased. In particular, it will be shown how the adoption of nonlinearities in both the solid state components and the resonant element could significantly enhance the frequency stability of M/NEM oscillators.

Bio

Cristian Cassella is currently an Associate Research Scientist in the Electrical and Computer Engineering department at Northeastern University, Boston. He received his B.S.E in 2006 at University of Rome – Torergata. In 2009 he received his M.Sc at University of Rome – Torergata. In 2011, after two years spent in the aerospace industry, he was a visiting scholar at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.  In 2012 he entered in a Ph.D program at Carnegie Mellon University which he completed in 2015. In 2015 he was a postdoctoral research associate at Northeastern University, Boston. In 2016 he became Associate Research Scientist at Northeastern University. His research focuses on piezoelectric micro and nano electromechanical systems (M/NEMS) for RF wireless communication platforms. His areas of interests include characterization and design of MEMS resonators and design of linear and nonlinear RF circuits. He is author of more than 30 publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings and holds one patent and 4 patent applications in the area of MEMS resonators and systems. One of his conference papers on phase-noise reduction was selected as Best Paper Award at the 2013 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Prague). One of his journal papers was identified as a paper of excellent quality, hence being highlighted as a JMEMS RightNow-Paper to a large community of readers and being released as open access for a limited time. He serves as a technical reviewer for several journals, such as Applied Physics Letter, IEEE Journal of MicroElectroMechanical devices and Electron Device Letter.
Tutorial 2B – Ekkehard Peik (Optical clocks)

Abstract

Optical clocks based on laser cooled and trapped atoms (in optical lattices at the « magic » wavelength) and ions (in radiofrequency Paul traps) have made fast progress, with the most advanced systems now reaching an instability of 10-16 in only 10 s of averaging time and a systematic uncertainty in the low 10-18 range. The lecture will discuss the principles, experimental requirements and methods that have enabled these performances.   Emphasis will be placed on the different atomic systems and types of “forbidden” reference transitions, and on the spectroscopic methods that provide the required control of systematic frequency shifts, especially those associated with the interaction with external electric and magnetic fields.  I will also discuss the conceivable future directions for the reliable evaluation and for scientific applications of atomic frequency standards with an uncertainty below that of Cs clocks.

Bio

Ekkehard Peik studied physics at the universities of Göttingen and Munich, obtaining the diploma (1988) and the PhD degree (1993) from LMU Munich for experimental work with laser-cooled trapped ions and the first experiments on an In+ optical frequency standard. From 1994-1996 he was Marie-Curie-Fellow at ENS, Paris, working on laser cooling and quantum effects in atoms. Work in Munich at LMU and MPQ from 1996-2001 included the advancement of the In+ project, the development of novel traps and the first optical frequency measurement of a trapped ion with a fs frequency comb. In 2001 he joined PTB as a staff scientist, became head of the working group “Optical clocks with trapped ions” in 2003 and of the Time and Frequency Department in 2007. Presently, his main research interests are the Yb+ single-ion optical clock, the promising 229Th nuclear clock, and  tests of fundamental physics with clocks.
Tutorial 2C – Siddhartha Tallur (The versatile toolbox of cavity opto-mechanics)

Abstract

Chipscale cavity opto-mechanics studies the interaction of photons and phonons in micro-resonators that simultaneously host high quality factor mechanical and optical resonances with strong spatial overlap. The past decade of research in this field has proven that energy and information transfer between the optical and acoustic domains can be mediated via strong opto-mechanical coupling in such structures, which can enable several versatile applications in sensing. In this tutorial, I will discuss the design, fabrication and measurement of an integrated silicon opto-mechanical system, and highlight the various sensing capabilities that can be exploited in such a highly scaled coupled resonator platform. One of the novel applications enabled by such a system is direct conversion of intensity modulation of laser light in the near-infrared regime to motional electric current wherein the device acts as a photon-phonon translator. The ultra-high displacement sensitivity of the opto-mechanical resonator, typically in the order of magnitude of attometer-per-root-Hertz, also enable high resolution sensing of physical quantities such as mass, force and acceleration. I will also demonstrate the unique ability of such a system to use the back-action of the optical field to launch self-sustained oscillations of the mechanical mode with zero flicker noise, which can be used as a stable timing reference as a resonant sensor, and as a low noise parametric amplifier. I will also highlight other recent advances in this field, most notably in the field of opto-mechano-fluidics, that has the potential for high sensitivity liquid phase sensing applications, and chip-scale optical inertial sensors. The takeaway message for attendees would be an appreciation for the various application potentials for the techniques that form the core of opto-mechanical experiments.

Bio

Dr. Siddharth Tallur is an expert in MEMS, photonic and opto-mechanical systems. His Ph.D. thesis research on designing novel low phase noise RF opto-mechanical and opto-acoustic oscillators won the best thesis award in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Cornell University in 2013. Additionally, he is well versed with RF and integrated analog circuit design, having worked with the ApselLab at Cornell University, where he co-authored several papers on design and characterization of a low power ultra wide band (UWB) impulse radio transceiver. Following the completion of his PhD in 2013, he worked as a Sensor Platform Development Engineer and Product Applications Engineer at Analog Devices Inc. in Wilmington, MA, USA, where he conceived and led the characterization of novel gyroscope designs and mixed-signal circuit architectures for inertial motion-sensing applications. He is currently PI of the AIMS Laboratory at IIT Bombay where he leads a research group focused on exploring applications of cavity-opto-mechanical sensors.
11:45 – 13:00
Lunch
13:00 – 14:30
Tutorial 3A – Craig Nelson (Phase Noise Metrology)

Abstract

Noise is everywhere. Its ubiquitous nature interferes with or masks desired signals and fundamentally limits all electronic measurements. Noise in the presence of a carrier is experienced as amplitude and phase modulation noise. Modulation noise will be covered from its theory, to its origins and consequences. The effects of signal manipulation such as amplification, frequency translation and multiplication on spectral purity will be examined. Practical techniques for measuring AM and PM noise, from the simple to complex will be discussed. Typical measurement problems, including the cross-spectrum anti-correlation, will also be covered.

Bio

Craig Nelson is an electrical engineer at the Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. He received his BSEE from the University of Colorado in Boulder in 1990. After co-founding SpectraDynamics, a supplier of low phase noise components, he joined the staff at the NIST. He has worked on the synthesis and control electronics, as well as software for both the NIST-7 and F1 primary frequency standards. He is presently involved in research and development of ultra-stable synthesizers, low phase noise electronics, and phase noise metrology. Current areas of research include optical oscillators, pulsed phase noise measurements and phase noise metrology in the MHz to THz range. He has published over 70 papers and teaches classes, tutorials, and workshops at NIST, the IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, and several sponsoring agencies on the practical aspects of high-resolution phase noise metrology. He was awarded the NIST Bronze Medal in 2012 and the Allen V. Astin Measurement Science Award in 2015 for developing a world-leading program of research and measurement services in phase noise.
Tutorial 3B – Yann Le Coq (Femtosecond combs)

Abstract

Femtosecond-laser based optical frequency comb are an essential part of the development of optical clocks, and optical frequency metrology in general. This tutorial will cover the base of the technologies pertaining to the realization and use of optical frequency combs in high precision measurements experiments. In particular, various technologies of femtosecond lasers used for making optical frequency combs will be described. The phase locking technique, as well as the transfer oscillator technique, used routinely in optical frequency measurements will be described. Some practical information about doing an absolute optical frequency measurement without undeterminate signs and factors errors left will be given. Furthermore, if time allows, a few advanced technique using optical frequency combs will be described.

Bio

Dr. Yann Le Coq graduated in 2002 in the field of cold quantum gases (Bose Einstein Condensation and Atom Lasers). He was a post-doc at NIST (Boulder Colorado) in the group of Leo Hollberg and Chris Oates in 2005-2006, where he was working on a cold neutral calcium optical clock, with connection to optical frequency combs. Since 2007, he has been working at LNE-SYRTE at Paris Observatory, the National Metrology Institute of France, in the Optical Frequency Group. His research interests are in ultra-stable lasers,  the development of optical frequency combs for ultra-low noise and high accuracy measurement, and using optical frequency combs for new applications. Such new applications include low phase noise microwave signal generation, and transferring spectral purity between different wavelengths in the near and mid infrared. He was the recipient of the 2014 EFTF Young Scientist award.
Tutorial 3C – Giacomo Langfelder (MEMS inertial sensors in 2017, with possible future visions)

Abstract

Through a few decades, MEMS inertial sensors have seen enormous evolution and progress from the device topology, electronic circuits and packaging points of view, and have historically led the development of micromachining fabrication processes. The continuous demand for new functionalities and new fields of application is now challenging some fundamental limits that traditional capacitive transduction intrinsically shows. The tutorial will review the physics and working principle behind capacitive MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes, with a specific focus on their typical sources of offset drift and scale-factor drift. A system-level vision will be adopted to clarify the interrelationships and trade-offs between sensors parameters (area), electronics parameters (consumption), packaging parameters (pressure and co-integration needs) and final performance (resolution, linearity, full-scale range). The discussion will pave the way to an introduction of alternative working principles based on frequency modulated (FM) sensing, which have direct relevance for the frequency-control community in the development of next-generation accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers for multi-parameter inertial units.

Bio

Giacomo Langfelder received his MS in Electrical Engineering in 2005, and his PhD in Information Technology in 2009  from  Politecnico  di  Milano,  Italy,  where  he  is  currently  Reader  of  MEMS  and  Microsensors  at  the Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering. His research interests include sensors, their front-end electronics, and related applications. At the early stage of his career he worked on innovative CMOS sensors with tunable color spaces; on MEMS process reliability; on MEMS accelerometers design and related VLSI electronics; on AMR sensors. He is now active in the field of MEMS  sensors  and  electronics  for  low-noise,  low-power  applications,  including  MEMS  magnetometers operated  off-resonance,  MEMS  gyroscopes  based  on  nano-gauge  NEMS  detection,  FM  accelerometers  and gyroscopes, and micromachined ultrasonic transducers. In recent years, he served as TPC member for the IEEE MEMS and the IEEE Inertial Sensors conferences. Within his research, he has been tightly collaborating with industries for more than a decade. In 2014, he was the co-founder of ITmems s.r.l., a spin-off company dedicated to the development of Instrumentation for the characterization of MEMS and sensors.
14:30 – 14:45
Coffea Break
14:45 – 16:15
Tutorial 4A – Enrico Rubiola (Phase noise and jitter in digital electronics)

Abstract

Digital electronics is progressively replacing analog electronics, even in applications where low noise is critical. When the analog signal cannot be avoided, the world is still going digital, with analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion as the interface. The reasons are obvious: simplicity, reproducibility, cost, and minimal or no calibration. Additionally, youngsters are more trained to digital than to analog, and the digital hardware benefits from the Moore law. Having said that, we go through phase noise in digital electronics and in the analog-digital interface, focusing on phase and frequency applications, frequency synthesis, and measurement. The tutorial will cover the following topics. -Review of definitions and principles. Phase noise noise spectrum, Allan deviation, jitter, quantization noise, and aliasing. -Simplified model of a digital circuit. Front-end, sin-to-square conversion, aliasing, and clock distribution. The Egan model for frequency synthesis. -Basic noise types found in digital electronics. Phase-type noise (or 𝜑-type noise) and time-type noise (or x-type noise), and their aliased version, chattering (multi-bouncing), and thermal effects. -The volume law, which states the weird fact that big cell size is better. -On-chip PLL and clock frequency multiplication. -Noise in digital chips. Model, examples, and analysis of a few phase noise spectra (FPGA, SoC, CPLD, TTL). VHF and microwave digital dividers. The classical Π (regular) scheme and the de-aliased Λ scheme. -Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS). Principles. Noise from truncation and non-linearity. Examples, and analysis of a few phase noise spectra. -Phase noise in analog-to-digital converters. Most concepts are derived from examples. This tutorial is mostly based on material not available in the general literature. Some of the concepts are found in https://arxiv.org/abs/1701.00094 and in numerous slides available on the Enrico’s home page.

Bio

Enrico Rubiola is full professor at the Université de Franche Comté and deputy director of the Department of Time and Frequency of the CNRS FEMTO-ST Institute, Besançon, France. Formerly, he was a full professor at the Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy, France, a guest scientist at the NASA JPL, a professor at the Università di Parma, Italy, and an assistant professor at the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. He graduated in electronic engineering at the Politecnico di Torino in 1983, received a Ph.D. in Metrology from the Italian Minister of University and Research, Roma (1989), and a Sc.D. degree from the Université de Franche Comté in 1999. Prof. Rubiola has worked on various topics of electronics and metrology, navigation systems, time/frequency comparisons, and frequency standards. His main fields of interest are precision electronics form dc to microwaves, and time and frequency metrology. This includes phase and amplitude noise, analog and digital frequency synthesis, high spectral purity oscillators, photonic systems, sophisticated instrumentation, spectral analysis, and noise. He has developed innovative instruments for AM/PM noise measurement with ultimate sensitivity, and a variety of dedicated signal-processing methods. Since 2012, Enrico is the PI of Oscillator IMP, a platform dedicated to the measurement of AM/PM noise and short-term frequency stability. A wealth of articles, reports and conference presentations are available on the Enrico’s home page http://rubiola.org.
Tutorial 4B – David Leibrandt (Lasers for optical frequency standards)

Abstract

Taking advantage of advances in low noise laser local oscillators and femtosecond frequency combs, optical frequency standards have surpassed the performance of the cesium microwave frequency standards upon which the SI second is based, and they are on the cusp of transitioning from scientific experiments to mainstream tools for metrology and fundamental physics.  These standards are based on optical transitions in trapped and laser cooled atoms or ions and they derive their performance advantages from high transition frequencies, narrow transition linewidths, and small fractional systematic frequency shifts.  State-of-the-art optical frequency standards are now reaching fractional frequency instabilities below 10-16 at 1 s and systematic uncertainties near 10-18. In addition to the possibility of a redefinition of the SI second based on optical frequency standards, optical frequency standards are also starting to be used in applications ranging from relativistic geodesy to tests of fundamental physics.This tutorial will discuss the lasers used in optical frequency standards, with an emphasis on the laser local oscillator, which is the most technically demanding due to its required linewidth of order 1 Hz.  It will describe techniques for frequency stabilization of laser local oscillators including the workhorse method of stabilization to high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavities as well as recent developments in stabilizing lasers to spectral holes in rare earth ion doped crystals, cryogenic cavities, and rugged and compact cavities capable of operating outside the laboratory environment.

Bio

David R. Leibrandt received a B.S.E. in Engineering Physics from the University of Michigan in 2004 and a Ph.D. in Physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2009 for his work on trapped-ion quantum information processing. Since 2009, he has been with the Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado, where he currently co-leads the trapped-ion optical atomic clock projects together with David Wineland. David’s research interests focus on precision measurements enabled by the toolbox of quantum control. Highlights of his work include the advancement of optical atomic clocks based on quantum-logic spectroscopy of aluminum ions as well as laser frequency stabilization based on compact, portable Fabry-Perot cavities and spectral-hole burning.
Tutorial 4C – Songbin Gong (Lithium Niobate for MEMS/NEMS)

Abstract

Recently, Lithium Niobate (LN) N/MEMS have emerged as a promising technology platform for various radio frequency applications due to their capability to support the propagation of various acoustic modes with high Q and high electromechanical coupling.This tutoiral will first cover the fundamentals of LN N/MEMS, including material properties, thin film integration, and micro-machining processes.  Next,  it will present a review of the recent advancements in LN micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Several types of devices or subsystems, including resonators, transformers, filters, and delay lines, will be discussed, targeting the different functions that are currently sought after in radio frequency signal processing for various existing and emerging applications. Technical challenges that remain in the path of deploying these devices are also summarized with a few suggested future research directions.

Bio

Dr. Songbin Gong is an assistant professor and the Intel Alumni Fellow with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at University of Illinois Urbana Champaign. Prior to UIUC, he was a research scientist with the ECE department at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh from 2012 to 2013, and a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia from 2010 to 2012. He received his PhD degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, in 2010, and his Bachelor degree from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, in 2004. He has over ten years of research experience in RF microsystems and 55 peer-reviewed publications on the subject.His research interests primarily include design and implementation of RF-MEMS devices, components, and subsystems for reconfigurable RF front ends, and engineering hybrid microsystems based on the integration of MEMS devices with photonics or circuits for imaging, sensing, and signal processing. Dr. Gong is a recipient of the 2014 DARPA Young Faculty Award. He has been a guest editor for the special issue of « RF-MEMS » in the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, and also a technical committee member of MTT-21 RF-MEMS in IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society.
16:15 – 16:30
Coffea Break
16:30 – 18:00
Tutorial 5A – John Kitching (Atomic Sensors for Navigation)

Abstract

This tutorial will cover the design, construction and performance of precision quantum-based sensors using atoms in the vapor phase. The first part of the tutorial will focus on vapor cell instruments, such as atomic magnetometers and NMR gyros. The second part will discuss atom interferometers based on atomic beams or laser-cooled atoms. For each instrument, we will discuss the basic physics underlying the instrument, describe how that physics motives the instrument design, describe experimental and instrumental implications and discuss the experimental and theoretical limits to performance. The talk will also touch on a number of applications of these instruments including inertial navigation, nuclear magnetic resonance and biomagnetics.

Bio

Dr. John Kitching received his PhD. in Applied Physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1995. Since 2003, he has been a physicist in the Time and Frequency Division at NIST and currently is the Leader of the Atomic Devices and Instrumentation Group in NIST’s Physical Measurements Laboratory. His research interests include miniaturized atomic clocks and sensors and applications of semiconductor lasers and micromachining technology to problems in atomic physics and frequency control. Most recently, he and his group pioneered the development of microfabricated “chip-scale” atomic devices for use as frequency references, magnetometers and other sensors. He is a Fellow of NIST, a Fellow of the American Physical Society and has received a number of awards for his work including the Department of Commerce Silver and Gold Medals, the 2015 IEEE Sensors Council Technical Achievement Award, the 2016 IEEE-UFFC Rabi Award and the prestigious 2014 Rank Prize. He has published over 80 papers in refereed journals, has given numerous invited and plenary talks and has been awarded six patents.
Tutorial 5B – Gesine Grosche (Frequency and time transfer using optical fibers)

Abstract

Ever more accurate clocks and frequency references are being developed in dedicated laboratories around the world, reaching astonishingly low instability and high accuracy, currently near 1 part in 10 to the 18. Making the ultra‐stable output of these powerful instruments available beyond the walls of the metrology laboratory, to enable physics experiments, remains a challenge. In the wake of the optical telecommunication revolution, transfer techniques that make use of optical fibre have greatly developed: within one decade, improvements of more than three orders of magnitude in precision have been achieved. Recently, long-distance frequency transfer with an uncertainty of 2 parts in 10 to the 20, and, for 1 km‐scale links, synchronisation at the level of femto-seconds has been reported. Fibre based transfer of frequency has been achieved over distances exceeding 1000 km, which enables international comparisons of clocks and other joint experiments. In this tutorial I will illustrate advantages and challenges of using optical fibre as a transmission medium for precision metrology. This will cover basic concepts, techniques and limitations, focussing on optical telecommunication fibre (1.55 μm), which is both cheap and optimised for low loss, making it suitable for long‐distance transfer. The tutorial will give an overview and comparison of different transfer techniques centred on methods using the optical carrier phase.

Bio

Gesine Grosche is head of the research group for optical frequency dissemination at the German Metrology Institute, PTB, in Braunschweig, Germany. She received her B.A. degree in Physics from Cambridge University, UK (Trinity College, 1993) and her PhD in Semiconductor Physics from University of London (Imperial College, 1997). After initially joining PTB to invent optical methods for measuring fluid flow velocities from an airplane, she moved on to coordinate a European project providing reference wavelengths for optical telecommunications, and, from 2003, to establish and develop frequency comb metrology based on mode‐locked fiber lasers at PTB. From 2001, she has pursued the vision of ultra‐stable frequency dissemination using telecommunication fibre, pioneering and refining techniques for remote metrology, which includes remote frequency measurements and frequency synthesis. Her group currently concentrates on long‐distance phase‐stable fibre links, and in 2015 jointly with the French group established the first international optical carrier link, between Paris and Braunschweig via Strasbourg. Work continues to compare the best clocks in metrology institutes across Europe.
Tutorial 5C – Philip Feng (Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS) for Frequency Control and Sensing)

Abstract

Nanoscale devices with mechanical degrees of freedom offer compelling characteristics that make them not only interesting tools for fundamental studies, but also intriguing candidates for technological applications. In particular, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) vibrating in their resonant modes provide promising opportunities and comparative advantages for developing low-power signal processing and sensing building blocks, in the previously inaccessible regimes. In fundamental physics, recently there has been a surge of interest in exploiting high-frequency NEMS for quantum physics and engineering. In technology development, significant efforts and milestones have been achieved in engineering NEMS, in all aspects including design, nanofabrication, signal transduction, and on-chip integration. This tutorial will give a systematic introduction to fundamentals of resonant NEMS and an overview of recent efforts in engineering nanoscale electromechanical devices for frequency control and sensing functions in physical sciences and emerging engineering applications, including quantum engineering. After discussing the basic concepts and fundamental theoretical principles, I shall introduce NEMS devices enabled by state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques and advanced materials. I will then focus on multiphysics coupling effects in NEMS and the associated signal transduction techniques that can be derived from these effects. We will discuss the key metrics and important frontier topics in NEMS device physics and engineering, including parametric effect, feedback, nonlinearity, mode coupling, internal resonance, noise, etc., and their applications and implications in frequency control and resonant sensing.

Bio

Philip Feng is currently an Associate Professor in Electrical Engineering at Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). His group’s research is primarily focused on emerging nanoscale devices and integrated microsystems. He studied EE and Applied Physics at Caltech and received his Ph.D. in 2007. His recent awards include a National Science Foundation CAREER Award, 4 Best Paper Awards (with his advisees, at IEEE NEMS 2013, IEEE Int. Freq. Control Symp. 2014, and AVS Int. Symp. 2014, 2016) out of 9 nominated Finalists for Best Paper Award Competitions, and a university-wide T. Keith Glennan Fellowship. He is also the recipient of the Case School of Engineering Graduate Teaching Award (2014) and the Case School of Engineering Research Award (2015). He was one of the 81 young engineers selected to participate in the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) 2013 U.S. Frontier of Engineering (USFOE) Symposium. Subsequently, he was selected to receive the NAE Grainger Foundation Frontiers of Engineering (FOE) Award in 2014 (two recipients). He was nominated for the John S. Diekhoff Award for distinguished graduate student mentoring and for the Bruce Jackson Award for excellent undergraduate mentoring. He has served on the Technical Program Committees (TPC) for IEEE IEDM, MEMS, Transducers, IFCS, and other conferences, and is the TPC Chair for the American Vacuum Society (AVS) MEMS/NEMS group and program. He is a Senior Member of IEEE, and a member of APS and AVS.